Use as human food crop Duckweed is eaten by humans in some parts of Southeast Asia. It contains more protein than soybeans, so sometimes it is cited as a significant potential food source. Some initial investigations to what extent duckweed could be introduced in European markets show little consumer objection to the idea. NASA’s Caves of Mars Project identified duckweed as a top candidate for growing food on Mars. A start-up, microTERRA, based in Mexico has attempted to use duckweed as clean water in privately owned aquaculture farms. The plants use nitrogen and phosphorus produced from fish waste as fertilizer, while simultaneously cleaning the water as it grows. The water can then be reused by the aquaculture farmers, and the duckweed, which has a 35-42% protein content, can be harvested as a source of sustainable protein.
Filtration of contaminants and nutrients The plants can provide nitrate removal, if cropped, and the duckweeds are important in the process of bioremediation because they grow rapidly, absorbing excess mineral nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphates. For these reasons, they are touted as water purifiers of untapped value. The Swiss Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries, associated with the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, asserts that as well as the food and agricultural values, duckweed also may be used for wastewater treatment to capture toxins and for odor control, and that if a mat of duckweed is maintained during harvesting for removal of the toxins captured thereby, it prevents the development of algae and controls the breeding of mosquitoes. The same publication provides an extensive list of references for many duckweed-related topics. These plants also may play a role in conservation of water because a cover of duckweed will reduce evaporation of water when compared to the rate of a similarly sized water body with a clear surface. Duckweed also functions as a bioremediator by effectively filtering contaminants such as bacteria, nitrogen, phosphates, and other nutrients from naturally occurring bodies of water, constructed wetlands, and wastewater.
Duckweed in natural environments One of the more important factors influencing the distribution of wetland plants, and aquatic plants in particular, is nutrient availability. Duckweeds tend to be associated with fertile, even eutrophic conditions. They can be spread by waterfowl and small mammals, transported inadvertently on their feet and bodies, as well as by moving water. In water bodies with constant currents or overflow, the plants are carried down the water channels and do not proliferate greatly. In some locations, a cyclical pattern driven by weather patterns exists in which the plants proliferate greatly during low water-flow periods, then are carried away as rainy periods ensue. Duckweed is an important high-protein food source for waterfowl. The tiny plants provide cover for fry of many aquatic species. The plants are used as shelter by pond-water species such as bullfrogs and fish such as bluegills. They also provide shade and, although frequently confused with them, can reduce certain light-generated growths of photoautotrophic algae.
Step 1: Drill three of four holes in the barrel. One of these is for the bibet to connect your garden house to the barrel and the other fittings will allow you to add more barrels in the future. One of the barrels must have an overflow fitting near the top of the barrel. If you plan on using 3/4 inch fittings use a 1 inch hole saw to cut the holes. If you have an adjustable hole saw make it a little smaller than 1 inch.
Step 2: Place plumbers goop on a 3/4 inch nipple. Using a 3/4 inch galvanized metal nipple and some locking pliers, thread nipple into the barrel. the hole for the fitting. Place Plumbers goop or some other adhesive on the thread.
Step 3: Now the real fun part. Cut the down spout at the proper height. You should place the rainbarrel on one or two concrete blocks and then determine the proper height. After cutting the down spout attach the necessary elbows and extensions to have the down spout reach the barrel. I still am trying to create a non ABS or PVC way to divert the first couple of gallons after each rainfall (this will keep the sediment from clogging up the screen). Attach a 4 inch by 2 inch ABS plastic converter to the end of the down spout and attach a fine mesh screen over the converter (you can use a paint sprayer filter which you can get at a hardware store).
Step 4: If you are adding more barrels do this now. Attach a garden hose Y fitting on the 3/4 inch nipples. Position the barrels on top of the concrete blocks and cut the right length of garden hose to connect the barrels (with male fittings attached to both ends).
Step 5: The final product. You must attach an overflow line on the first barrel (the one on the far right in this picture). This must be placed near the top of the barrel and it should be attached to some form of hose or tube to discharge any overflow. Please note that you must remove one of the two bung fittings on the top of the barrel and cover it with a small screen. I used the paint sprayer filter with a rubber-band to hold it in place.
What is rain garden? A rain garden is a beautiful and effective way to clean polluted stormwater runoff. A rain garden acts like a miniature native forest by collecting, absorbing, and filtering stormwater runoff from roof tops, driveways, patios, and other areas that don’t allow water to soak in. They can be built at several scales and one may be just right for your home or neighborhood. Rain Gardens are simply shallow depressions that: # Can be shaped and sized to fit your yard. # Use a special mix of sand and compost that allow water to soak in rapidly and supports healthy plant growth. #Can be landscaped with a variety of plants to fit the surroundings.
Will it be expensive or difficult to install and maintain a rain garden? Once a shallow depression is dug for the rain garden, it won’t be any more expensive than planting other landscaped areas in your yard. Most of the recommended plants can be purchased at local nurseries and you maintain them just like any other plants in your yard. If you are using native plants, once established, they will require less water and no fertilization.
Won’t a rain garden create a pond for mosquitoes? No, a rain garden is not a pond. When properly constructed, the water will drain within 48 hours (but usually faster). Mosquitoes won’t find rain gardens to be good breeding areas because they need much more time to lay and hatch eggs.
I’m interested in building a rain garden. What should I do next? Visit http://www.cmhc.ca (or any equivalent website in your area) and type “rain gardens” in the search field for more information on rain gardens. *Note: This information is provided for your benefit only. If you do not feel comfortable in constructing your rain garden, please consult a landscaper. The City of Calgary will not be liable nor responsible for any bodily or personal injury or property damage of any nature that may be suffered from the construction of your rain garden.
What’s are Benefits of Rain Gardens Low maintenance. Rain gardens need no more care than regular landscaping. Grows quickly. Extra moisture and loose, deep soil make plants thrive and quickly fill in a space. Provides habitat. Rain gardens can provide abundant food, water, and shelter for wildlife such as birds and butterflies. Diversifies plant possibilities. Extra natural moisture means you can have a water-wise garden while including more moisture-loving plants you might otherwise have had to leave out. Improves aesthetics. Rain gardens add visual interest to your yard and your community.
Why Rain Gardens are Best for… Properties with more space. Rain gardens are simplest to install when you can stay at least three metres away from building foundations. Newer properties with mostly manicured turf. Typical groomed turf is usually underlain with a shallow soil that is inhospitable to plant survival, doesn’t break down contaminants, and creates a lot of runoff. Adding rain gardens to this type of property (newer than about 1970) will instantly improve its performance. Areas where a tree canopy is yet to establish. If you have mature trees, your property is working hard already, and rain gardens are a type of feature that might be difficult to fit in. Where you don’t have trees, rain gardens are a major performance booster.
Rain Garden Basics
What is a rain garden? A rain garden is a beautiful and effective way to clean polluted stormwater runoff. A rain garden acts like a miniature native forest by collecting, absorbing, and filtering stormwater runoff from roof tops, driveways, patios, and other areas that don’t allow water to soak in. They can be built at several scales and one may be just right for your home or neighborhood.
Rain Gardens are simply shallow depressions that:
Can be shaped and sized to fit your yard.
Use a special mix of sand and compost that allow water to soak in rapidly and supports healthy plant growth.
Can be landscaped with a variety of plants to fit the surroundings.
Why do we need raingardens? Stormwater is nothing but rainfall after it falls on the earth’s surface and travels across the landscape to a nearby stream or other water body. In landscapes that have been altered by humans, this stormwater picks up everything we humans leave behind – things like oil and gas, heavy metals, fertilizers, and animal waste.
Scientists have confirmed that stormwater is harmful to humans, animals, and fish that come in contact with it. Eventually stormwater makes its way to Puget Sound impairing the Sound’s water quality, impacting our shellfish and fisheries industry, and limiting recreational opportunities. (Source: https://extension.wsu.edu/raingarden/featured-rain-gardens/)
WSU research and experiments have shown that stormwater collected from highways around Puget Sound is lethal to fish. However, when that same stormwater was filtered through a special rain garden soil mix – the fish lived. Rain gardens can be a important tool in limiting the amount of contaminated water reaching our streams and Puget Sound.
Rainwater harvesting systems capture rainwater by directing it from large surfaces (e.g. roofs) to an underground or over-ground holding tank. The harvested rainwater is filtered and then pumped directly to the appliances or to a header tank. For more information visit http://www.rwh.in/ & http://www.rwh.in/sitemap.htm
Rainbarrel Tutorial: How to make a rain barrel Step 1: Drill three of four holes in the barrel. One of these is for the bibet to connect your garden house to the barrel and the other fittings will allow you to add more barrels in the future. One of the barrels must have an overflow fitting near the top of the barrel. If you plan on using 3/4 inch fittings use a 1 inch hole saw to cut the holes. If you have an adjustable hole saw make it a little smaller than 1 inch. Step 2: Place plumbers goop on a 3/4 inch nipple. Using a 3/4 inch galvanized metal nipple and some locking pliers, thread nipple into the barrel. the hole for the fitting. Place Plumbers goop or some other adhesive on the thread. Step 3: Now the real fun part. Cut the down spout at the proper height. You should place the rainbarrel on one or two concrete blocks and then determine the proper height. After cutting the down spout attach the necessary elbows and extensions to have the down spout reach the barrel. I still am trying to create a non ABS or PVC way to divert the first couple of gallons after each rainfall (this will keep the sediment from clogging up the screen). Attach a 4 inch by 2 inch ABS plastic converter to the end of the down spout and attach a fine mesh screen over the converter (you can use a paint sprayer filter which you can get at a hardware store). Step 4: If you are adding more barrels do this now. Attach a garden hose Y fitting on the 3/4 inch nipples. Position the barrels on top of the concrete blocks and cut the right length of garden hose to connect the barrels (with male fittings attached to both ends). Step 5: The final product. You must attach an overflow line on the first barrel (the one on the far right in this picture). This must be placed near the top of the barrel and it should be attached to some form of hose or tube to discharge any overflow. Please note that you must remove one of the two bung fittings on the top of the barrel and cover it with a small screen. I used the paint sprayer filter with a rubber-band to hold it in place. You can get the 55 gallon barrels for $…. at Yoshida Group out by the airport (telephone number 503-284-1114 ask to speak with shipping). They are in the Yellow Pages.
Garden Watersaver allows environmentally-conscious people to easily collect rain water from the roof of a house, so that the water can be used whenever it’s needed to irrigate a lawn or a garden, to clean yard tools, or for any other non-drinking use.
The secret of Garden Watersaver is their unique Downspout Diverter, which attaches easily to any gutter’s downspout. Once in place, the Diverter sends water to a rain barrel through a hose until that barrel is completely full. Once full, additional water simply continues down the downspout as it normally would — so the process is automatic!
The amount of rainfall that you can collect is governed by the following formula: Easy to Remember Formula: 1″ of rain x 1 sq. ft. = 0.623 gallonsTo calculate the amount of rainwater you can collect, you need to know your annual average precipitation for your area. You can use the precipitation map below to find an approximate amount for your area.
As you may already know, the topography in Meghalaya is hilly, with steep slopes and rough landscapes. Hence, using ground channels in this area is unfavorable. So, bamboo drip irrigation is widely preferred.
Usually, water sources are distant from plantation sites and so the main bamboo channel runs several meters, sometimes even a couple of kilometres. Water is thus obtained and managed through a brilliant bamboo system of secondary and tertiary channels to reach each part and corners of the plantation.
Bamboo channels are utilized to tap perennial water from up-slopes, which is cleverly diverted to the lower parts using gravity. An ingenious system that wastes very little water and works to this day.
Channel sections are made of bamboos of different diameters, to control the water flow in such a way that the water reaches the site in the lower reaches, where it is circulated without spillage. The channels are supported by forked branches.
It is so perfected that about 18-20 litres of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several hundred metres and finally gets reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.
One can buy online best quality herbs and spices that are grown in traditional ways by Meghalaya’s farmers (without pesticide and chemicals fertilizer) and are unadulterated and guaranteed by Zizira from their website https://www.zizira.com/ .
Over 80% of the population of Meghalaya depend on agriculture and most of them own small family farms and follow traditional farming methods. A good irrigation system is an imperative for successful farming.
Read on to see how these farmers who follow traditional farming methods have a traditional irrigation system designed by themselves.
A 200 years old Traditional Irrigation System
The topography in Meghalaya is hilly, with steep slopes due to which there are two challenges the farmers of Meghalaya face.
First, the water-retention capacity of the terrain is poor.
Second, bringing water from distant water sources to the fields is a big challenge for the farmers in the rural areas.
Ground channeling is also impractical due to the harsh landscape. Confronted with such adverse conditions for irrigation, the traditional farmers of Meghalaya have come up with an innovative way that works. Since olden times, farmers of Meghalaya who mostly follow traditional farming methods have been utilizing an indigenous, traditional irrigation method of bamboo drip irrigation system to water their crops.
The Conservation at Work video series was created to increase producer awareness of common conservation practices and was filmed at various locations throughout the country. Because conservation plans are specific to the unique resource needs on each farm and also soil type, weather conditions, etc., these videos were designed to serve as a general guide to the benefits of soil and water conservation and landowners should contact their local USDA office for individual consultation. USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender. #CoverCrops #SoilHealth #Conservation
Yamakura Dam (Ichihara City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan)
Kyocera TCL Solar LLC
270-watt Kyocera modules (50,904 modules in total)
Expected annual power generation
Approx. 16,170MWh/year Electricity generated is planned to be sold to Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated
Start of construction: December 2015Planned launch: FY2018 (fiscal year ending March 31, 2018)
Design & construction
KYOCERA Communication Systems Co., Ltd.
KYOCERA Solar Corporation
Kyocera TCL Solar LLC
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Century Tokyo Leasing Corporation (81%) Kyocera Corporation (19%)
To sell power produced from solar power generation
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0801_K7VZGo 17 Apr 2015 – Kyocera Corporation and Century Tokyo Leasing Corporation announced today that Kyocera TCL Solar LLC, a joint venture established by the two companies, has completed construction of two floating mega-solar power plants at Nishihira Pond and Higashihira Pond in Kato City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The plants, inaugurated in late March, will generate an estimated 3,300 megawatt hours (MWh) per year in total — enough electricity to power approximately 920 typical households*. Features 1. Floating solar power generating systems typically generate more electricity than ground-mount and rooftop systems due to the cooling effect of the water. Features 2. They reduce reservoir water evaporation and algae growth by shading the water. Features 3. Floating platforms are 100% recyclable, utilizing high-density polyethylene, which can withstand ultraviolet rays and resists corrosion. Features 4. The floating platforms are designed and engineered to withstand extreme physical stress, including typhoon conditions. * Based on average annual use of 3,600kWh per household. Source: Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDnVBFqpFpI The largest floating PV power plant in Japan: 13,744 kWp Installed on a water retention reservoir, Yamakura Dam, in Chiba prefecture. Project developed by Kyocera TCL Solar LLC Hydrelio® floating system provided by Ciel & Terre® International company.
Easy to Remember Formula: 1″ of rain x 1 sq. ft. x 0.9 = 0.5607 gallons
Assumptions: Assume that the rainwater collection system has an 0.9 yield — meaning that you’d only catch 90% of actual rainwater. It has been assumed that 0.1 yield of captured water which has “washed” the roof. Once the roof washer has filled, the rest of the water flows to the cistern.
Many parts of the United States are in (or are about to enter) a drought period, facing possible water restrictions. In February 2009, the Governor of California ordered that mandatory water rationing and mandatory reductions in water use may be introduced.
Rain tanks, or rain barrels, collect fresh rain water from the home roof and store it for times of drought. Modern rain tanks are sealed from light, animals and vegetable matter so the water stays clean for months.
Proponents of global warming warn that weather patterns are already changing and traditional rainfall levels are expected to drop in many areas.
Green living is now becoming a way of life for a majority of Americans. People are conscious of their ‘carbon footprint’ and are seeking methods to reduce the future impact on the environment and climate. 20% of California’s power consumption is used to collect, transport and treat water.
In areas of major urbanization the environment is suffering from increased run-off that cannot soak naturally into the ground. As a result, aquifers are not filling at a rate fast enough to restore their pre-urban levels.
Saving Drinking Water
Water is a limited resource and the cost of its supply is certain to rise in the next few years. Most major water collection and distribution projects in California were completed over fifty years ago and no new major rainwater catchment projects are planned. Water restrictions are nothing new in California, but since the last major drought in the early 1990s, the state’s population has grown by 9 million to a total of 38 million.
In a press conference on March 12, 2009 the governor plainly stated that, with increased demand and limited supply, Californians can expect to pay more for water in the future.
But why use good drinking water on the garden or to flush toilets? Over 40% of water supplied to most suburban households is used on the garden. This is not the best use of a product processed for human consumption. Besides, most plants enjoy the slightly acidic and soft qualities of rainwater.
Bushman rainwater harvesting tanks maintain a high quality of rain water with gutter guards, insect filters and first flush devices that divert the first rains of the season to the drain. All tanks are opaque and do not allow the growth of algae. Tanks are made or lined with food grade quality polyethylene.
Off-the-grid or off-grid is a characteristic of buildings and a lifestyle designed in an independent manner without reliance on one or more public utilities.
The term “off-the-grid” traditionally refers to not being connected to the electrical grid, but can also include other utilities like water, gas, and sewer systems, and can scale from residential homes to small communities.
Off-the-grid living allows for buildings and people to be self-sufficient, which is advantageous in isolated locations where normal utilities cannot reach and is attractive to those who want to reduce environmental impact and cost of living.
Generally, an off-grid building must be able to supply energy and potable water for itself, as well as manage food, waste and wastewater.
Basic components of rainwater system: Regardless of the complexity of the system, the domestic rainwater harvesting system comprises six basic components: #1 Catchment surface: the collection surface from which rainfall runs off #2 Gutters and downspouts: channel water from the roof to the tank #3 Leaf screens, first-flush diverters, and roof washers: components which remove debris and dust from the captured rainwater before it goes to the tank #4 One or more storage tanks, also called cisterns #5 Delivery system: gravity-fed or pumped to the end use #6 Treatment/purification: for potable systems, filters and other methods to make the water safe to drink. Refer Chapter2 of The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting >>